Epidemiology worksheet | Science homework help


  • the role of gender in Lung Cancer deaths. Does being a male put you at a higher risk of contracting or dying from Lung Cancer? Answer yes or no, explain. 

The graph doesn’t show us that cigarette smoking is known to be a direct cause of Lung Cancer. We have that info from another source already. We can use the information in this graph, plus our knowledge about the association of smoking with Lung Cancer, to perform deductive reasoning to make a guess about what is going on. We can form a hypothesis, and then use Analytical reasoning in Section 7 to test out hypothesis, 

2. Compare the two curves for male vs. female, can you deduce the reason why the two curves are not directly on top of each other? 

3. Why does the male curve show a higher death rate? 

4. Why does the male curve shoot up earlier in the 20th century than does the female curve? 

5. A hypothesis is a testable statement. What hypothesis could you draw from your reasoning? 

Section 7 – Analytical Epidemiology

Re-read this section and answer the questions that follow:

As noted earlier, descriptive epidemiology can identify patterns among cases and in populations by time, place and person. From these observations, epidemiologists develop hypotheses about the causes of these patterns and about the factors that increase risk of disease. In other words, epidemiologists can use descriptive epidemiology to generate hypotheses, but only rarely to test those hypotheses. For that, epidemiologists must turn to analytic epidemiology.

The key feature of analytic epidemiology is a comparison group. Questions:

6. Re-read the statement from the reading above: “The key feature of analytic epidemiology is a comparison group.” 

What is a comparison group and how does it work? 

7-8. Using your hypothesis that you developed in question 5 above, suggest an Analytical study that would allow you to test your hypothesis. 

7. Consider the rationale of setting up an Experimental Study. One possible way to do this would be to set up groups of male and female teenagers, teach half them to smoke, get them to commit to smoking for the rest of their lives. Set up a comparison group, get them to commit to not smoking for the rest of their lives. Follow them for the next 25-40 years to chart how many of them die of Lung Cancer every year.

Would this be the most ethical way to test your hypothesis? Answer yes or no, and explain your answer.

8. Instead, consider the setting up an Observational Study. read about and consider the three types of studies: Cohort, Case-control and Crossectional Studies. 

Choose one of these three approaches, and briefly describe how you would do it. Be sure to say what your comparison group would be. 

Sections 8, 9 and 10. Read these sections and think about these concepts relate to the HIV epidemic.

Now read Section 1.10. Work through the problem in Exercise 1.9, as it applies to Dengue Fever. Check your answers on the link to be sure that you understand how these concepts work. 

Challenge: After reading this information to find out what each of these terms mean, now outline the chain of infection for HIV by identifying the reservoir(s), portal(s) of exit, mode(s) of transmission, portal(s) of entry, and factors in host susceptibility for HIV.

1. Reservoirs:

2. Portals of exit:

3. Modes of transmission:

4. Portals of entry:

5. Factors in host susceptibility:

Calculate Your Essay Price
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Order your essay today and save 10% with the coupon code: best10