# Psyk sample study guide | Numerical analysis homework help

Question 1

1. In a two-factor analysis of variance a main effect is defined as the ____.
 [removed] a. mean difference between the two factors [removed] b. difference between the largest treatment mean and the smallest treatment mean [removed] c. mean differences among all treatment conditions [removed] d. mean differences among the levels of one factor

Question 2

1. A repeated-measures study uses a sample of n = 15 participants to evaluate the mean differences among four treatment conditions. In the analysis of variance for this study, what is the value for dfbetween treatments?
 [removed] a. 4 [removed] b. 5 [removed] c. 3 [removed] d. 59

Question 3

1. In the first stage of a repeated-measures ANOVA, total degrees of freedom is partitioned into:
 [removed] a. within treatments df and between subjects df [removed] b. between treatments df and between subjects df [removed] c. between treatments df and within treatments df [removed] d. error df and between subjects df

Question 4

1. For a two-factor experiment with two levels of factor A and three levels of factor B and n = 10 subjects in each treatment condition, how many participants are in each level of factor B?
 [removed] a. 60 [removed] b. 20 [removed] c. 10 [removed] d. 30

Question 5

1. A repeated-measures analysis of variance for a study comparing three treatment conditions with a sample of n = 10 participants, produces an F-ratio of F = 5.40. For this result, which of the following is the correct statistical decision?
 [removed] a. There is not enough information to determine the correct decision. [removed] b. Reject the null hypothesis with a = .05 but not with a = .01. [removed] c. Reject the null hypothesis with either a = .05 or a = .01. [removed] d. Fail to reject the null hypothesis with either a = .05 or a= .01.

Question 6

1. What is the purpose for post tests?
 [removed] a. to determine whether or not the sample is normally distributed [removed] b. to determine which treatments are significantly different [removed] c. to determine how much difference exists between the treatments [removed] d. to determine whether or not a Type I error was committed

Question 7

1. In an analysis of variance, which value is determined by the size of the sample variances?
 [removed] a. SSwithin [removed] b. dfwithin [removed] c. dfbetween [removed] d. SSbetween

Question 8

1. For a repeated-measures study comparing three treatment conditions with a sample of n = 4 participants, the participant totals (the P values) are 3, 6, 9, and 6, and the SS values within each treatment are SS1 = 2, SS2 = 2 and SS3 = 6. What is the value for SSerror?
 [removed] a. 6 [removed] b. 2 [removed] c. 10 [removed] d. 4

Question 9

1. A researcher obtains a negative value for a chi-square statistic. What can you conclude because the value is negative?
 [removed] a. The researcher made a mistake; the value of the chi-square cannot be negative. [removed] b. The observed frequencies are consistently larger than the expected frequencies. [removed] c. There are large differences between the observed and expected frequencies. [removed] d. The expected frequencies are consistently larger than the observed frequencies.

An analysis of variance produces SSbetween = 40 and MSbetween = 20. In this analysis, how many treatment conditions are being compared?

 [removed] a. 3 [removed] b. 20 [removed] c. 2 [removed] d. 4

Question 11

1. The results of a two-factor analysis of variance produce df = 2, 36 for the F-ratio for factor A and df = 2, 36 for the F-ratio for factor B. How many participants are in each of the treatment conditions?
 [removed] a. 10 [removed] b. 6 [removed] c. 4 [removed] d. 5

Question 12

1. A sample of 100 people is classified by gender (male/female) and by whether or not they are registered voters. The sample consists of 80 females and 20 males, and has a total of 60 registered voters. If these data were used for a chi-square test for independence, what is the expected frequency for males who are registered voters?
 [removed] a. 12 [removed] b. 20 [removed] c. 60 [removed] d. 40

Question 13

1. A researcher used a sample of n = 60 individuals to determine whether there are any preferences among four brands of pizza. Each individual tastes all four brands and selects his/her favorite. If the data are evaluated with a chi-square test for goodness of fit using α = .05, then how large does the chi-square statistic need to be to reject the null hypothesis?
 [removed] a. between 5.99 and 7.81 [removed] b. less than 5.99 [removed] c. greater than 7.81 [removed] d. less than 7.81 Question 14 Source SS df MS F Between 12 1 12 4 Within 68 22 Bet. Sub 35 11 error 33 11 3 Total 23

Question 15

1. What is stated by the null hypothesis for the chi-square test for independence?
 [removed] a. The two variables have different frequency distributions. [removed] b. There is no relationship between the two variables. [removed] c. Both variables have the same frequency distribution. [removed] d. There is a relationship between the two variables.

Question 16

1. A sample of n = 100 people is classified into four categories. If the results are evaluated with a chi-square test for goodness of fit, what is the df value for the chi-square statistic?
 [removed] a. 3 [removed] b. 99 [removed] c. 100 [removed] d. 4

Question 17

1. If the results of a two-factor experiment are presented in a line graph, then what pattern appears in the graph if there is an interaction?
 [removed] a. The lines are separated by a space. [removed] b. The lines in the graph are not straight (bent). [removed] c. The lines move toward each other or cross. [removed] d. The lines are parallel.

Question 18

1. The following table shows the results of an analysis of variance comparing three treatment conditions with a sample of n = 10 participants in each treatment. Note that several values are missing in the table. What is the missing value for SStotal?

Source             SS        df         MS

Between           20        xx        xx        F = xx

Within              xx        xx        2

Total                xx        xx

 [removed] a. 54 [removed] b. 30 [removed] c. 74 [removed] d. 22

Question 19

1. The following data represent the means for each treatment condition in a two factor experiment. Note that one mean is not given. What value for the missing mean would result in no main effect for factor B?

B1              B2

 A1 20 10 A2 40 ? [removed] a. 50 [removed] b. 30 [removed] c. 20 [removed] d. 40

Question 20

1. A researcher is conducting a chi-square test for independence to evaluate the relationship between gender and preference among three different designs for a new automobile. Each individual in a sample of n = 30 males and n = 30 females selects a favorite design from the three choices. If the researcher obtains a chi-square statistic of χ2 = 4.81, what is the appropriate statistical decision for the test?
 [removed] a. Fail to reject the null hypothesis with either α = .05 or α = .01. [removed] b. Reject the null hypothesis with α = .05 but not with α = .01. [removed] c. Fail to reject the null hypothesis with α = .10. [removed] d. Reject the null hypothesis with either α = .05 or α = .01.

1 points

Question 22

1. In a two-factor ANOVA, what is the implication of a significant AxB interaction?
 [removed] a. Both of the main effects must also be significant. [removed] b. At least one of the main effects must also be significant. [removed] c. Neither of the two main effects can be significant. [removed] d. The significance of the interaction has no implications for the main effects.

Question 23

1. A researcher selects a sample of 100 people to investigate the relationship between gender (male/female) and registering to vote. The sample consists of 40 females, of whom 30 are registered voters, and 60 males, of whom 40 are registered voters. If these data are used for a chi-square test for independence, what is the expected frequency for registered females?
 [removed] a. 12 [removed] b. 40 [removed] c. 42 [removed] d. 28

Question 24

1. When comparing more than two treatment means, should you use an analysis of variance rather than using several t tests, and if so, why?
 [removed] a. Yes. The analysis of variance is more likely to detect a treatment effect. [removed] b. No. There is no advantage to using an analysis of variance rather than several t tests. [removed] c. Yes. Using several t tests increases the risk of a Type I error. [removed] d. Yes. Using several t tests increases the risk of a Type II error.

Question 25

1. Which of the following not used in an F-ratio for the two-factor analysis of variance?
 [removed] a. MSwithin treatments [removed] b. MSbetween treatments [removed] c. MSAxB [removed] d. MSA

Question 26

1. Which outcome is expected if the null hypothesis is true for an analysis of variance?
 [removed] a. MSbetween should be about the same size as MStotal. [removed] b. MSbetween should be about the same size as MSwithin. [removed] c. SSbetween should be about the same size as SSwithin. [removed] d. SSbetween should be about the same size as SStotal.

Question 27

1. If a two-factor analysis of variance produces a statistically significant interaction between the two factors A and B, then what can you conclude about the main effects for A and B?
 [removed] a. Either the main effect for factor A or the main effect for factor B is also significant. [removed] b. Neither the main effect for factor A nor the main effect for factor B is significant. [removed] c. The significance of the main effects is not related to the significance of the interaction. [removed] d. Both the main effect for factor A and the main effect for factor B are significant.

Question 28

1. Which of the following accurately describes the observed frequencies for a chi-square test?
 [removed] a. They can contain both positive and negative values. [removed] b. They can contain fractions or decimal values. [removed] c. They are always the same value. [removed] d. They are always whole numbers.

Question 29

1. What conclusion is appropriate if a chi-square test produces a chi-square statistic near zero?
 [removed] a. The researcher made a mistake because chi-square can never be close to zero. [removed] b. There is a good fit between the sample data and the null hypothesis. [removed] c. There is a large discrepancy between the sample data and the null hypothesis. [removed] d. All of the expected frequencies must also be close to zero.

Question 30

1. For an independent-measures ANOVA comparing three treatments with a sample of n = 5 in each treatment, what is the critical value for the F-ratio using α = .05?
 [removed] a. 3.88 [removed] b. 3.74 [removed] c. 3.49 [removed] d. 3.34

Question 31

1. A repeated-measures ANOVA produces SSbetween treatments = 30 and MSbetween treatments = 10. In this analysis, how many treatment conditions are being compared?
 [removed] a. 5 [removed] b. 20 [removed] c. 3 [removed] d. 4

Question 32

1. The following table shows the results of a repeated-measures ANOVA. Based on this table, what is the value for η2, the percentage of variance accounted for by the treatments?

Source             SS    df   MS

Between           22     2   11   F = 5.50

Within              58   21

Bet. Sub.    0     7

Error          28   14     2

Total                80   23

 [removed] a. 22/50 [removed] b. 22/58 [removed] c. 22/80 [removed] d. 22/30

Question 33

1. For an experiment involving two levels of factor A and three levels of factor B with a sample of n = 5 in each treatment condition, what is the value for dfwithin treatments?
 [removed] a. 30 [removed] b. 29 [removed] c. 24 [removed] d. 20

Question 34

1. What is the relationship among the separate F-ratios in a two-factor ANOVA?
 [removed] a. They all have the same df values but they may have different denominators. [removed] b. They may have different df values but they all have the same denominator. [removed] c. They all have the same df values and they all have the same denominator. [removed] d. They may have different df values and may have different denominators.

Question 35

1. Which of the following is used to calculate the degrees of freedom for the A x B interaction?
 [removed] a. dfbetween. treatments – dfA – dfB [removed] b. dfbetween. treatments – dfwithin treatments [removed] c. dfA – dfB [removed] d. dfwithin – (dfA + dfB)

Question 36

1. In analysis of variance, each independent variable is referred to as a ____.

[removed]

a.

level

[removed]

b.

comparison

[removed]

c.

factor

[removed]

d.

stage

Question 37

1. A repeated-measures study uses a sample of n = 10 participants to evaluate the mean differences among four treatment conditions. In the analysis of variance for this study, what is the value for dfbetween subjects?
 [removed] a. 36 [removed] b. 9 [removed] c. 27 [removed] d. 39

Question 38

1. The following table shows the results of an analysis of variance comparing two treatment conditions with a sample of n = 11 participants in each treatment. Note that several values are missing in the table. What is the missing value for the F-ratio?

Source             SS        df         MS

Between           xx        xx        14        F = xx

Within              xx        xx        xx

Total                154      xx

 [removed] a. 2 [removed] b. 7 [removed] c. 14 [removed] d. 28

Question 39

1. The results from a two-factor analysis of variance show a significant main effect for factor A and a significant main effect for factor B. Based on this information, what can you conclude about the interaction between the two factors?
 [removed] a. You cannot make any conclusion about the significance of the interaction. [removed] b. There probably is a significant interaction. [removed] c. The interaction cannot be significant. [removed] d. There must be a significant interaction.

Question 40

1. Which of the following is a basic assumption for a chi-square hypothesis test?
 [removed] a. The observations must be independent. [removed] b. The population distribution(s) must be normal. [removed] c. The sample size is less than 30. [removed] d. The scores must come from an interval or ratio scale.

Question 41

1. On average, what value is expected for the F-ratio if the null hypothesis is true?
 [removed] a. 1.00 [removed] b. k – 1 [removed] c. N – k [removed] d. 0

Question 42

1. For an analysis of variance comparing four treatments, MSbetween = 12. What is the value of SSbetween?
 [removed] a. 36 [removed] b. 4 [removed] c. 48 [removed] d. 3

Question 43

1. The following table shows the results of a repeated-measures analysis of variance comparing three treatment conditions with a sample of n = 10 participants. Note that several values are missing in the table. What is the missing value for the F-ratio?

Source             SS   df   MS

Between           28   xx   xx   F = xx

Within              xx   xx

Bet. Sub.    16   xx

Error          xx   xx   xx

Total                80   xx

 [removed] a. 4 [removed] b. 10 [removed] c. 14 [removed] d. 7

Question 44

1. For a two-factor study with two levels of factor A, 2 levels of factor B, and a separate sample of n = 10 participants in each treatment condition, what is dfwithin treatments?
 [removed] a. 36 [removed] b. 9 [removed] c. 39 [removed] d. 18

Question 45

1. A chi-square test for goodness of fit is used to examine the distribution of individuals across four categories, and a chi-square test for independence is used to examine the distribution of individuals across six categories in a 2 X 3 matrix of categories. Which test has the larger value for df?
 [removed] a. The test for independence has the larger value. [removed] b. The goodness of fit has the larger value. [removed] c. The df value depends on the sizes of the samples that are used. [removed] d. Both tests have the same df value.

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