Power point slide | Psychology homework help



Understanding Combat Stress

The whole designation of the student.

The educational institution that the student has enrolled at.

The course nomenclature and alphanumeric identification.

The course instructor

The deadline for the submission of the assignment in Writing

Understanding Combat Stress

Imagine yourself in a war zone. You are in the trenches, the blood of your comrades in your hands mixed with sweat, tears, and mud from the terrain. The sun going down and all you have is your weapon and your fellow soldiers. All around you are the sounds of bullets and guns muffling up the screams of the wounded soldiers in your squad. These people are your friends. You have trained with them and you have grown to be more of a family, rather than a team. Yet, their screams are all that run wild in this situation.

This may sound like the introduction to a good novel, but it is a representation of what soldiers go through in combat (Liao & Bassham, 2020). Very few soldiers have missed this experience. Many of them have had to endure more intense traumatic experiences than this, which eventually results in combat stress (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2020).

Combat stress refers to the psychological and emotional strain experienced by individuals who have been exposed to intense and traumatic events during military combat and warfare (Liao & Bassham, 2020). Any individual who goes through combat will confess that it is not an easy endeavor. There is a reason why everyone remembers their first fight and the first serious punch they have ever taken (Shreffler et al., 2020). Going through combat daily and having to deal with these experiences daily can be a very straining endeavor. The analysis of the causes of combat stress, symptoms of combat stress, the effects, and the treatment of combat stress will be discussed in detail.

Causes of Combat Stress

Combat stress is often caused by direct exposure to combat. This can happen in a variety of ways. For example, a firefighter can experience combat stress from his experiences combating fires. A soldier experiences combat stress from their experience fighting the enemy in a war zone (Romero, 2023). One can also experience combat stress by being a witness of combat. For example, children who have lived in Gaza, which has seen great fighting and combat between Israel and Palestine, have shown sights of combat stress.

Combat stress is further aggravated by other factors. One of those factors is brain injuries (Romero, 2023). If a person experiences brain trauma while in combat, the stress becomes much worse. Cumulative stress can also worsen the situation. Life, aside from combat, can be stressful as well (Shreffler et al., 2020). When this stress adds on to combat stress, the situation for the person can be great. Loss and grief also add to combat stress. In combat, the idea of death is a very common concept (Romero, 2023). People in combat face death every day and it is common to lose partners in the workplace. This can increase the intensity of the combat trauma.

Moral and ethical dilemmas can also compound combat stress. A good example is the situation that most firefighters face (Romero, 2023). In certain situations, it is having to choose whom to save between a father and child or a coworker and a civilian. This eventually leads to stress and can increase the intensity of combat strength.

Symptoms of Combat Stress

There are a variety of symptoms associated with combat stress. The major one is flashbacks (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2020). This is where individuals going through combat stress see vivid recollections of traumatic combat events that feel as though they are back in war again. This can happen at any time and can be triggered by anything (Figley & Nash, 2011). There have been cases of individuals experiencing a flashback after hearing a loud clap or when things accidentally fall near them. This almost instantly brings them back to combat, with many entering full war mode. Another symptom is nightmares. Disturbing dreams of the traumatic experiences in combat are often a recurring symptom for those dealing with combat stress (Figley & Nash, 2011).

Another symptom is hypervigilance. This is where an individual feels a sense of alertness and readiness for danger, even in non-threatening situations (Figley & Nash, 2011). An example of this is walking through a Walmart and feeling like you are being watched and employing tactics to deal with being watched. Feeling numb is also another symptom. This is often the course of action for many who experience life-changing situations. Many people often feel emotionally detached and numb, which often results in a lack of interest in activities that were once enjoyed (Figley & Nash, 2011). This is often coupled with avoidance, where an individual avoids people, places, conversations, or activities that bring back the memories of the traumatic experience (Figley & Nash, 2011).

There are also symptoms such as depression and anxiety. These happen when someone experiences high levels of stress, which combat stress features a lot. There are also feelings of guilt and shame. These are related to the things that one did and witnessed during combat (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2020). Survivor’s guilt, which is where one feels guilty because they survived combat while many others did not, is often a symptom of combat stress. There can also be physical manifestations of combat stress such as headaches, gastrointestinal issues, muscle tension, and fatigue (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2020).

Effects of Combat Stress

One of the significant impacts associated with combat stress is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Figley & Nash, 2011). This is a mental health condition characterized by hypervigilance and avoidance behaviors. Many individuals who have had an encounter with combat often end up developing PTSD, which can significantly hamper an individual’s daily functioning and way of life (Figley & Nash, 2011). Eventually, these individuals often begin struggling with basic tenets of life such as maintaining a regular job and keeping a meaningful relationship with family.

Combat stress also often leads to substance abuse, Many who have experienced combat trauma often turn to alcohol, drugs, and other substances to numb the pain they experience. Statistics show that 20% of veterans with PTSD also have substance use disorder (Figley & Nash, 2011). This shows the prevalence of drug and substance abuse among those who have experienced combat trauma. Another effect is social withdrawal and homelessness. More often than not, individuals who have experienced combat stress often end up isolated and living on the streets. This is because they often struggle to connect with society and are usually treated as outcasts for dealing with their mental issues (Figley & Nash, 2011). This further worsens the individual’s drug use and PTSD. There have been several cases of individuals dealing with combat stress and PTSD being on the wrong side of the law, and with the flaws in the criminal justice system, they end up arrested and even shot dead on the streets (Figley & Nash, 2011).

Treatment of Combat Stress

There are a variety of ways to address the combat stress. One of the chief approaches is psychotherapy (Figley & Nash, 2011). The use of psychology has been a recourse for many who wish to access medical assistance for dealing with combat stress. One of the most popular approaches to dealing with combat stress is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with combat stress. It focuses on developing coping skills, managing symptoms, and addressing trauma-related triggers (Figley & Nash, 2011). This helps the individual identify ways they can get assistance.

Medication, administered by a professional has also shown great results for treating combat stress. However, due to the state of healthcare in the country, especially for veterans, many have ended up in addiction (Figley & Nash, 2011). However, medication, when rightfully used, can be a great tool to deal with combat stress. Physical exercise and mindfulness exercises have also been shown to be very helpful in coping with combat stress. Activities such as hiking, yoga, and outdoor adventures provide good avenues for rest and relaxation (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2020).


David J. Morris, a former Marine and author, once articulated that trauma disrupts the linear progression of time. He goes on to explain that in ordinary circumstances, time unfolds sequentially, moving from one moment to the next, from sunrise to sunset, and from birth to death (Morris, 2015). However, following trauma, individuals may experience disorientation in time, finding themselves trapped in loops, pulled backward into whirlpools, or ricocheting unpredictably between past and present. In the aftermath of trauma, the conventional laws of reality seem to warp: mundane objects may transform into symbols of danger and threat (Morris, 2015). This description offers insight into the nature of combat stress and its profound effects on individuals. It underscores the importance of raising awareness about this issue and developing effective strategies to address it, thus mitigating its impact on society.


Figley, C. R., & Nash, W. (Eds.). (2011). 
Combat stress injury: Theory, research, and management. Routledge.

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Renna, M. E., Shrout, M. R., & Madison, A. A. (2020). Stress reactivity: what pushes us higher, faster, and longer—and why it matters. 
Current directions in psychological science
29(5), 492-498.

Liao, C. Y., & Bassham, D. C. (2020). Combating stress: the interplay between hormone signaling and autophagy in plants. 
Journal of experimental botany
71(5), 1723-1733.

Morris, D. J. (2015). 
The evil hours: A biography of post-traumatic stress disorder. HMH.

The Learning Professional
44(3), 14-15.

Shreffler, J., Huecker, M., Martin, L., Sawning, S., Thé, S., Shaw, M. A., … & Holthouser, A. (2020). Strategies to combat burnout during intense studying: utilization of medical student feedback to alleviate burnout in preparation for a high stakes examination. 
Health Professions Education
6(3), 334-342.

Calculate Your Essay Price
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Order your essay today and save 10% with the coupon code: best10