Reply for students discussion board

Asian RTA discussion board


2 replies of at least 200 words each.For your 2 replies, you must incorporate a minimum of 2 different resources citing them in current APA format. You may use the textbook, scholarly journals, the Bible, and governmental websites.


First student-Monica Fields 

Asia is the largest continent in the world and has several RTAs that are different from most RTAs throughout the world. Asia RTAs differs in four distinctive ways such as 1.) They are less institutionalized and less formalized than RTAs in other regions. 2.) They follow economic integration more than leading it. 3.) They have monetary cooperation in most cases than trade cooperation. 4.) They region’s largest traders are divided over their vision for RTAs in their region. The four different aspects in the RTAs have caused several issues within the members because there is not agreement due to different opinions on countries that should participate in the agreement. (Lynch, 2010)

     Two specifics examples of how these different aspects are displayed within the nations associated with them are 1.) The anti-competition practices employed by importers and wholesaler in the importing countries. The system being corrupted allow importers to maintain monopoly controls and manage the import volumes by deploying NTBs on selected exporters and at selected times. 2.) The lack of proper arrangements for the flow of people and finances in the region. Due to the security concerns the government have yet build trust in the banks, consulates, and border agencies to determine legitimate transactions. This cause issues because people are not able to trade freely. (Prasai, 2014)

     Mormon and Christianity are two denominations that believe that Jesus is the Son of God but has many different beliefs. The main beliefs that stuck out to me were in Mormon they believe: There is no original sin. The Articles of their Faith 2 says, “We believe that men will be punished for their own sins, and not for Adam’s transgression.” In Christianity, they believe: Sin entered in the world from the disobedience of Adam. Christian Faith Roman 5:12 states “Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and this death spread to all men, because all sinned.” This belief in Mormonism causes many denominations to question Mormons in why Jesus had to die. (McDowell, 2012.)

     In many ways, yes Mormon is right that we do have to pay for the penalty of our sins because of the choices that we make that is against the teachings of God. However, God made man with the ability to have freedom in the Garden of Eden and gave man a choice to be free from sin until Adam ate fruit from the specific tree that God said not to. In doing this, sin entered into the earth and the price was death until Jesus died for our sins to give us remission.



Prasai, S. (2014.) IN ASIA. Real-World Problems of South Asian Integration. Retrieved From:

McDowell, S. (2012.) Biola. What are the Key Differences between Mormonism and Christianity? Retrieved From:

Lynch, D. (2012.) Trade and Globalization. An Introduction to Regional Trade Agreements.


Second Student- Joshua Kepart 

           There are four distinct elements that make Asian RTAs differ from RTAs from other regions of the world. Author David Lynch (2010, p. 129) briefly introduces these four elements. First, Asian RTAs tend to be less formalized and less institutionalized. Second, instead of leading economic integration, Asian RTAs follow economic integration. Third, trade cooperation is not as obvious as monetary cooperation. Fourth and finally, the largest traders of the region are split over their vision toward regional RTAs. The purpose of this post is to examine two of the four distinctions mentioned by Lynch.

            First, China is one of the major players in the Asian region. In fact, China possesses the world’s second largest economy and is the largest importer and exporter in Asia (Yu, 2011, p. 611). Therefore, the decisions made by China when it comes to RTA activity can send ripple effects throughout the region. In addition, China has been one of the major initiators of bilateral agreements. Some of their bilateral free trade agreements have included countries like Chile, Peru, and Costa Rica (Yu, 2011, pp. 616-617). However, not every neighboring Asian country is excited about these agreements. The argument, from these opposing nations, is that China is making agreements not for economic reasons but rather political reasons. While these agreements can produce some immediate economic growth, the concern for toward long-term security issues (Yu, 2011, p. 620). Politically driven decisions are not always the best route to take, especially when discussing economics.

            The second example of these distinct elements can be seen in the Chiang Mai Initiative or CMI. In fact, three of the four elements can be briefly mentioned here. Lynch (2010, p. 145), states, “The Chiang Mai Initiative is a loose grouping of a set of bilateral monetary cooperation treaties between ASEAN+3 members and is at the same time a process of moving toward more institutionalized monetary cooperation.” From this quote one can see that the CMI is not formalized, but working towards it, and is focused primarily on monetary cooperation. These two elements are specifically mentioned above. In addition, setting up CMI was stalled because of differing views in the vision for its establishment. Japan first introduced the idea in 1997 but was denied. It was not until three years later in 2000 that the CMI was approved and started (Sussangkarn, 2011). Almost all four elements are displayed in this one agreement.  

            In examining differences among Christian denominations, it was interesting that churches with a Brethren or Mennonite background emphasized and seemed to include foot washing as a third ordinance or sacrament (Mennonite Church, Article 13). For other denominations such as Baptist, there is a belief that only two ordinances were left by Christ – Baptism and the Lord’s Supper. It is unlikely to attend a service at a Baptist, Methodist, or Presbyterian churches where foot washing would be a normal practice. However, following the example of Jesus when He washed His disciples feet, Mennonites continue the practice.   




Lynch, D. (2010). Trade and Globalization: An Introduction to Regional Trade Agreements. United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, Inc.  


Mennonite Church USA. (2014). “Article 13: Foot Washing. Retrieved from:


Sussangkarn, C. (2011). “Chiang Mai Initiative: Origin, Development, and Outlook.” Asian Economic Policy Review, 6(2). Retrieved from:



Yu, W. (2011). “China and East Asian Regionalism.” European Law Journal, 17(5). 611-629. Retrieved from:

HR Preparation for Union Negotiations Assignmnet 

 You are required to reply to 2 classmates’ threads. Each thread must include 2 citations from scholarly/peer-reviewed sources in addition to the text and relevant scriptural integration, all in current APA format. Replies must be at least 150 words and include at least 1 citation from scholarly/peer-reviewed sources in addition to the text and relevant scriptural integration in current APA format.

First student- Tina Wimmer 

As an HR Manager of the Zinnia Hotel, finding out the employees are interested in unionizing would be a bit surprising, but with the current events of other employees unionizing and demonstrating, it is not unexpected. Wages at Zinnia are competitive with other unionized positions, however the benefit package is not.

In this case, negotiations seem like they would be easy. Zinnia first needs to check out the benefit and wage information of comparable unionized companies to see what the norm is. Workers will be looking for either better benefits, or an increase in pay to offset the costs of paying these expenses themselves. Integrative bargaining can be used to ensure that the needs of all parties are fulfilled. The integrative bargaining method “seeks to unify the common interests of the parties to a negotiation so that all can become better off.” (Budd, 2013)

The union representative would have a similar approach, starting out with integrative bargaining. Union organizers must start out with large demands, as should the employer start out with low offers so a happy medium can be met. Bargaining and negotiations must extend right up until the deadline, so no party will think their representative gave in to demands too easily.

Some employees may have an issue with the undocumented immigrants working alongside and receiving the same wage as legal immigrants and other citizens. Labor unions in the past have not included undocumented people. During that time, employers hired these people at a lower wage in order to avoid paying higher union negotiated rates. Since that time unions have recruited even undocumented workers in order to promote fairness to all employees. (Neidorf, 2003)



Axtman, Kris. (2001, Aug 29). Why unions embrace illegal immigrants

meet dale wortham, houston AFL-CIO official and friend to the

undocumented. The Christian Science Monitor Retrieved from



Budd, John. W. (2013) Labor Relations, Striking a Balance. 4th Ed. McGraw-Hill.



Neidorf, S. (2003, Aug 31). Friend, not foe; unions step up campaign

to strengthen workplace rights for illegal immigrants. Chicago

Tribune Retrieved from



 Second Student- Shannon 

The Zinnia is a 300 room, full service hotel located in the Midwest that caters to business people. The hotel offers competitive wages and a modest benefits package however; forty percent of their back-of-the-house workers have signed union authorization cards (Budd, 2013, p. 225). In preparation of negotiations, it is important to be aware of mandatory, illegal, and permissive bargaining items. “Mandatory bargaining items are wages, hours, and terms and conditions of employment; employers and unions have an obligation to bargain over these” (Budd, 2013, p. 245). Illegal items are those that would violate the law and permissive items include those not mentioned as mandatory or illegal.

                In preparation of negotiations, it is necessary to gather “information on labor market conditions, wage and salary surveys, and other information about comparable industries” (Negotiating and Administering Collective Bargaining Agreements, 2013). The following lists steps that should be researched prior to negotiations: company’s needs and wants, prepare for work stoppage, deal breakers, union needs and wants, company statistics, market data, and financial impact (HR Magazine, January 2005 – Good-Faith Bargaining, 2005). It is important for management to be ready to respond to the items on the table. In this particular case, employee wages are comparable to competition including those that are unionized but there seems to be a gap in benefits. It will be necessary for them to be prepared to address this topic specifically.

Multiple scriptures mention negotiations and I chose to quote the following two verses:

“Let there be a treaty between me and you,” he said, “as there was between my father and your father. See, I am sending you a gift of silver and gold. Now break your treaty with Baasha king of Israel so he will withdraw from me” (1 Kings 15:19 NIV).

Then they went to Joshua in the camp at Gilgal and said to him and the Israelites, “We have come from a distant country; make a treaty with us” (Joshua 9:6).

Negotiating is a part of life that God acknowledges. These negotiations offer an agreed compromise in any situation including business.



Budd, J. (2013). Labor Relations Striking a Balance (Forth Edition). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

HR Magazine, January 2005 – Good-Faith Bargaining. (2005). Retrieved from Society for Human Resource Management:


Negotiating and Administering Collective Bargaining Agreements. (2013). Retrieved from Society for Human Resource Management:

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